Stratix® IV 40-nm FPGAs simplify the challenges of designing for signal integrity by providing transceivers with best-in-class jitter characteristics. Advanced features in the transceivers simplify PCB design and compensate for inevitable board losses through adaptive equalization, multi-tap pre-emphasis, programmable VOD, and on-chip termination (see Table 1). Additional features are also included that enhance the Stratix IV FPGA die and package, resulting in excellent signal and power integrity and maximum user flexibility (see Table 2).
Stratix IV GT, Stratix IV GX, and Stratix II GX FPGAs are the only devices in the industry with the ability to automatically and continuously monitor and set the receive equalizer to the best eye opening (see Figure 1) for a particular high-speed interconnect and provide Plug & Play Signal Integrity, as seen on Stratix II GX FPGAs in this video.
Figure 1. 40-nm Eye Diagram at 8.5 Gbps per Second
Altera’s adaptive dispersion compensation engine (ADCE) technology, along with hot-socketing capability, allows you to load just one FPGA image for all card slots in your system, reducing inventory, characterization, and factory test costs. ADCE in production can continuously monitor and compensate for manufacturing variations as well as process voltage and temperature effects.
|Table 1. Signal Integrity Features of Stratix IV GT and Stratix IV GX Transceiver FPGAs|
|Programmable VOD||400 mV to
|Enables you to select a level for system design or to meet a protocol standard|
|Pre-Emphasis||900% 3-taps||Dynamically programmable 3-tap transmitter pre-emphasis with up to 8,192 pre-emphasis levels to compensate for pre-cursor and post-cursor inter-symbol interference (ISI)|
|On-Chip Regulators||TX, RX PLL||On-die power supply regulators for transmitter and receiver phase-locked loop (PLL) charge pump and voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) provides superior noise immunity|
|On-Chip Termination||0, 100, 150 differential||
Pre-emphasis, equalization, and VOD are all dynamically programmable in Stratix IV GT and Stratix IV GX FPGAs. This allows you to change levels while the transceiver is operating, making it simpler to tune the interface for interoperability testing or to change a setting, depending on a board's location in a system. Table 2 shows the I/O and packaging technology proven in Stratix III FPGAs.
|Table 2. I/O and Packaging Features for Optimal Signal Integrity|
|8:1:1 User I/O, Ground, and Power Ratio||Provides low impedance return path for every I/O to reduce loop inductance and noise.|
|Optimized Die- and Package-Level Signal Return Path||Optimizes return path with low impedance to reduce loop inductance and noise.|
|Adjustable Slew Rate Control||Controls signal edge rate to reduce noise.|
|Staggered Output Delay Control||Spaces out simultaneous switching outputs (SSO) switching time to reduce simultaneous switching noise (SSN).|
|Dynamic On-Chip Termination||Dynamically controls on-chip termination for proper line termination and impedance matching, which helps prevent reflections on the transmission line. Eliminates the need for external termination resistors to lower system cost and simplify PCB design.|
|On-Package and On-Die Decoupling||Provides high-frequency decoupling and suppresses power noise. Reduces the number of external PCB decoupling capacitors to lower system cost and simplify PCB design.|
Table 3 highlights the features and benefits of the high-speed differential signals of Stratix IV FPGAs.
|Table 3. High-Speed Differential Signaling|
|LVDS Buffer Enhancement||Includes programmable pre-emphasis and programmable VOD features to compensate for signal attenuation.|
|Dynamic Phase Alignment (DPA)||Compensates for skew in board layout, allowing source-synchronous I/O to operate at higher data rates, which increases the likelihood of successful PCB layout.|
|Soft-CDR||Soft-CDR circuitry at the receiver allows implementation of asynchronous serial interfaces with embedded clock at data rates up to 1.6 Gbps (for example SGMII, Gigabit Ethernet)|