No, you cannot use a transceiver RX Pin as a CDR REFCLK for the HDMI Design Example Receiver Interface (Sink) on Arria© 10 and Cyclone© 10 devices.
The HDMI TMDS_CLK frequency is dependent on the video resolution. Low resolutions have a TMDS_CLK frequency of 27MHz which is below the minimum CDR REFCLK frequency. The HDMI Design Example implements a cascaded IOPLL architecture to multiply-up the TMDS_CLK for low resolution video.
TMDS_CLK -> IOPLL -> CDR REFCLK
The RX Pin as a REFCLK feature can only be used when connected directly to the CDR REFCLK. Your design will fail to fit in the Quartus© Prime software if you place the HDMI Design Example RX REFCLK on an Rx Pin.
To work around this problem you should place your HDMI Design Example TMDS_CLK on a dedicated transceiver REFCLK pin.