Intel® MAX® 10 devices support global clock (GCLK) networks.
Clock networks provide clock sources for the core. You can use clock networks in high fan-out global signal network such as reset and clear.
Intel® MAX® 10 devices offer built-in internal oscillator up to 116 MHz.
You can enable or disable the internal oscillator.
Phase-locked loops (PLLs) provide robust clock management and synthesis for device clock management, external system clock management, and I/O interface clocking.
You can use the PLLs as follows:
- Zero-delay buffer
- Jitter attenuator
- Low-skew fan-out buffer
- Frequency synthesizer
- Reduce the number of oscillators required on the board
- Reduce the clock pins used in the device by synthesizing multiple clock frequencies from a single reference clock source
- On-chip clock de-skew
- Dynamic phase shift
- Counters reconfiguration
- Bandwidth reconfiguration
- Programmable output duty cycle
- PLL cascading
- Reference clock switchover
- Drive the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) clock
GCLKs drive throughout the entire device, feeding all device quadrants. All resources in the device, such as the I/O elements, logic array blocks (LABs), dedicated multiplier blocks, and M9K memory blocks can use GCLKs as clock sources. Use these clock network resources for control signals, such as clock enables and clears fed by an external pin. Internal logic can also drive GCLKs for internally-generated GCLKs and asynchronous clears, clock enables, or other control signals with high fan-out.
There are two types of external clock pins that can drive the GCLK networks.
Dedicated Clock Input Pins
You can use the dedicated clock input pins (CLK<#>[p,n]) to drive clock and global signals, such as asynchronous clears, presets, and clock enables for GCLK networks.
If you do not use the dedicated clock input pins for clock input, you can also use them as general-purpose input or output pins.
The CLK pins can be single-ended or differential inputs. When you use the CLK pins as single-ended clock inputs, both the CLK<#>p and CLK<#>n pins have dedicated connection to the GCLK networks. When you use the CLK pins as differential inputs, pair two clock pins of the same number to receive differential signaling.
Dual-Purpose Clock Pins
You can use the dual-purpose clock (DPCLK) pins for high fan-out control signals, such as protocol signals, TRDY and IRDY signals for PCI via GCLK networks.
The DPCLK pins are only available on the left and right of the I/O banks.
|Clock Resource||Device||Number of Resources Available||Source of Clock Resource|
|Dedicated clock input pins||
||8 single-ended or 4 differential||CLK[3..0][p,n] pins on the left and right of the I/O banks|
||16 single-ended or 8 differential||CLK[7..0][p,n] pins on the top, left, bottom, and right of the I/O banks|
|DPCLK pins||All||4||DPCLK[3..0] pins on the left and right of the I/O banks|
For more information about the clock input pins connections, refer to the pin connection guidelines.
The clock control block drives GCLKs. The clock control blocks are located on each side of the device, close to the dedicated clock input pins. GCLKs are optimized for minimum clock skew and delay.
The clock control block has the following functions:
- Dynamic GCLK clock source selection (not applicable for DPCLK pins and internal logic input)
- GCLK multiplexing
- GCLK network power down (dynamic enable and disable)
|Dedicated clock input pins||Dedicated clock input pins can drive clocks or global signals, such as synchronous and asynchronous clears, presets, or clock enables onto given GCLKs.|
|DPCLK pins||DPCLK pins are bidirectional dual function pins that are used for high fan-out control signals, such as protocol signals, TRDY and IRDY signals for PCI via the GCLK. Clock control blocks that have inputs driven by DPCLK pins cannot drive PLL inputs.|
|PLL counter outputs||PLL counter outputs can drive the GCLK.|
|Internal logic||You can drive the GCLK through logic array routing to enable the internal logic elements (LEs) to drive a high fan-out, low-skew signal path. Clock control blocks that have inputs driven by internal logic cannot drive PLL inputs.|
Each Intel® MAX® 10 device has a maximum of 20 clock control blocks. There are five clock control blocks on each side of the device.
Each PLL generates five clock outputs through the c[4..0] counters. Two of these clocks can drive the GCLK through a clock control block.
From the Clock Control Block Inputs table, only the following inputs can drive into any given clock control block:
- Two dedicated clock input pins
- Two PLL counter outputs
- One DPCLK pin
- One source from internal logic
The output from the clock control block in turn feeds the corresponding GCLK. The GCLK can drive the PLL input if the clock control block inputs are outputs of another PLL or dedicated clock input pins. Normal I/O pins cannot drive the PLL input clock port.
Out of these five inputs to any clock control block, the two clock input pins and two PLL outputs are dynamically selected to feed a GCLK. The clock control block supports static selection of the signal from internal logic.
You can disable the Intel® MAX® 10 GCLK (power down) by using both static and dynamic approaches. In the static approach, configuration bits are set in the configuration file generated by the Intel® Quartus® Prime software, which automatically disables unused GCLKs. The dynamic clock enable or disable feature allows internal logic to control clock enable or disable of the GCLKs.
When a clock network is disabled, all the logic fed by the clock network is in an off-state, reducing the overall power consumption of the device. This function is independent of the PLL and is applied directly on the clock network.
You can set the input clock sources and the clkena signals for the GCLK multiplexers through the ALTCLKCTRL IP core parameter editor in the Intel® Quartus® Prime software.
The Intel® MAX® 10 devices support clkena signals at the GCLK network level. This allows you to gate off the clock even when a PLL is used. After reenabling the output clock, the PLL does not need a resynchronization or relock period because the circuit gates off the clock at the clock network level. In addition, the PLL can remain locked independent of the clkena signals because the loop-related counters are not affected.
The clkena signal can also disable clock outputs if the system is not tolerant to frequency overshoot during PLL resynchronization.
Intel® MAX® 10 devices have built-in internal ring oscillator with clock multiplexers and dividers. The internal ring oscillator operates up to 232 MHz which is not accessible. This operating frequency further divides down to slower frequencies.
By default internal oscillator is turned off in user mode. You can turn on the oscillator by asserting the oscena signal in the Internal Oscillator IP core.
When the oscena input signal is asserted, the oscillator is enabled and the output can be routed to the logic array through the clkout output signal. When the oscena signal is set low, the clkout signal is constant high. You can analyze this delay using the Timing Analyzer.
The main purpose of a PLL is to synchronize the phase and frequency of the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) to an input reference clock.
Phase-Frequency Detector (PFD)
The PFD has inputs from the feedback clock, fFB, and the input reference clock, fREF. The PLL compares the rising edge of the input reference clock to a feedback clock using a PFD. The PFD produces an up or down signal that determines whether the VCO needs to operate at a higher or lower frequency.
Charge Pump (CP)
If the charge pump receives a logic high on the up signal, current is driven into the loop filter. If the charge pump receives a logic high on the down signal, current is drawn from the loop filter.
Loop Filter (LF)
The loop filter converts the up and down signals from the PFD to a voltage that is used to bias the VCO. The loop filter filters out glitches from the charge pump and prevents voltage overshoot, which minimizes jitter on the VCO.
Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
The voltage from the charge pump determines how fast the VCO operates. The VCO is implemented as a four-stage differential ring oscillator. A divide counter, M, is inserted in the feedback loop to increase the VCO frequency, fVCO, above the input reference frequency, fREF.
The VCO frequency is determined using the following equation:
fVCO = fREF × M = fIN × M/N ,
where fIN is the input clock frequency to the PLL and N is the pre-scale counter.
The VCO frequency is a critical parameter that must be between 600 and 1,300 MHz to ensure proper operation of the PLL. The Intel® Quartus® Prime software automatically sets the VCO frequency within the recommended range based on the clock output and phase shift requirements in your design.
Post-Scale Counters (C)
The VCO output can feed up to five post-scale counters (C0, C1, C2, C3, and C4). These post-scale counters allow the PLL to produce a number of harmonically-related frequencies.
Internal Delay Elements
The Intel® MAX® 10 PLLs have internal delay elements to compensate for routing on the GCLK networks and I/O buffers. These internal delays are fixed.
The Intel® MAX® 10 PLL supports up to 5 GCLK outputs and 1 dedicated external clock output. The output frequency, fOUT, to the GCLK network or dedicated external clock output is determined using the following equation:
fREF = fIN/N and
fOUT = fVCO/C = (fREF × M)/C = (fIN × M)/(N × C),
where C is the setting on the C0, C1, C2, C3, or C4 counter.
|C output counters||5|
|M, N, C counter sizes||1 to 512 2|
|Dedicated clock outputs||1 single-ended or 1 differential|
|Dedicated clock input pins||4 single-ended or 2 differential|
|Spread-spectrum input clock tracking||Yes 3|
|PLL cascading||Through GCLK|
|Source synchronous compensation||Yes|
|No compensation mode||Yes|
|Zero-delay buffer compensation||Yes|
|Phase shift resolution||Down to 96 ps increments 4|
|Programmable duty cycle||Yes|
|Output counter cascading||Yes|
|Input clock switchover||Yes|
|User mode reconfiguration||Yes|
|Loss of lock detection||Yes|
|4:1 multiplexer CLK input selection||Yes|
The following figures show the physical locations of the PLLs. Every index represents one PLL in the device. The physical locations of the PLLs correspond to the coordinates in the Intel® Quartus® Prime Chip Planner.
|Dedicated Clock Pin||PLL|
|PLL Counter Output||GCLK|
You can use the following three signals to observe and control the PLL operation and resynchronization.
Use the pfdena signal to maintain the last locked frequency so that your system has time to store its current settings before shutting down.
The pfdena signal controls the PFD output with a programmable gate. The PFD circuit is enabled by default. When the PFD circuit is disabled, the PLL output does not depend on the input clock, and tends to drift outside of the lock window.
The areset signal is the reset or resynchronization input for each PLL. The device input pins or internal logic can drive these input signals.
When you assert the areset signal, the PLL counters reset, clearing the PLL output and placing the PLL out of lock. The VCO is then set back to its nominal setting. When the areset signal is deasserted, the PLL resynchronizes to its input as it relocks.
The assertion of the areset signal does not disable the VCO, but instead resets the VCO to its nominal value. The only time that the VCO is completely disabled is when you do not have a PLL instantiated in your design.
The locked output indicates that the PLL has locked onto the reference clock and the PLL clock outputs are operating at the desired phase and frequency set in the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
Intel recommends using the areset and locked signals in your designs to control and observe the status of your PLL. This implementation is illustrated in the following figure.
The Intel® MAX® 10 PLLs support up to four different clock feedback modes. Each mode allows clock multiplication and division, phase shifting, and programmable duty cycle.
The PLL fully compensates input and output delays only when you use the dedicated clock input pins associated with a given PLL as the clock sources.
For example, when using PLL1 in normal mode, the clock delays from one of the following clock input pins to the PLL and the PLL clock output-to-destination register are fully compensated:
When driving the PLL using the GCLK network, the input and output delays might not be fully compensated in the Intel® Quartus® Prime software.
If the data and clock arrive at the same time at the input pins, the phase relationship between the data and clock remains the same at the data and clock ports of any I/O element input register.
You can use this mode for source synchronous data transfers. Data and clock signals at the I/O element experience similar buffer delays as long as both signals use the same I/O standard.
Source synchronous mode compensates for clock network delay, including any difference in delay between the following two paths:
- Data pin to I/O element register input
- Clock input pin to the PLL PFD input
For all data pins clocked by a source synchronous mode PLL, set the input pin to the register delay chain in the I/O element to zero in the Intel® Quartus® Prime software. All data pins must use the PLL COMPENSATED logic option in the Intel® Quartus® Prime software.
In no compensation mode, the PLL does not compensate for any clock networks. This mode provides better jitter performance because clock feedback into the PFD does not pass through as much circuitry. Both the PLL internal and external clock outputs are phase-shifted with respect to the PLL clock input.
In normal mode, the PLL fully compensates the delay introduced by the GCLK network. An internal clock in normal mode is phase-aligned to the input clock pin. In this mode, the external clock output pin has a phase delay relative to the input clock pin. The Intel® Quartus® Prime software Timing Analyzer reports any phase difference between the two.
In zero-delay buffer (ZDB) mode, the external clock output pin is phase-aligned with the clock input pin for zero delay through the device. When using this mode, use the same I/O standard for the input clock and output clocks to ensure clock alignment at the input and output pins.
Each PLL in the Intel® MAX® 10 devices supports one single-ended clock output or one differential clock output. Only the C0 output counter can feed the dedicated external clock outputs without going through the GCLK. C0 and all other output counters can feed other I/O pins through the GCLK.
Each pin of a differential output pair is 180° out of phase. To implement the 180° out-of-phase pin in a pin pair, the Intel® Quartus® Prime software places a NOT gate in the design into the I/O element.
The clock output pin pairs support the following I/O standards:
- Same I/O standard as the standard output pins (in the top and bottom banks)
- Differential high-speed transceiver logic (HSTL)
- Differential SSTL
The Intel® MAX® 10 PLLs can drive out to any regular I/O pin through the GCLK. You can also use the external clock output pins as general-purpose I/O pins if you do not require any external PLL clocking.
Only the C0 output counter from PLL1 and PLL3 can drive the ADC clock.
Counter C0 has dedicated path to the ADC clock input.
The Intel® MAX® 10 devices allow a spread-spectrum input with typical modulation frequencies. However, the device cannot automatically detect that the input is a spread-spectrum signal. Instead, the input signal looks like deterministic jitter at the input of the PLL.
The Intel® MAX® 10 PLLs can track a spread-spectrum input clock if the input signal meets the following conditions:
- The input signal is within the input jitter tolerance specifications.
- The modulation frequency of the input clock is below the PLL bandwidth as specified in the Fitter report.
Intel® MAX® 10 devices cannot generate spread-spectrum signals internally.
The programmable duty cycle allows PLLs to generate clock outputs with a variable duty cycle. This feature is supported on the PLL post-scale counters.
The duty cycle setting is achieved by a low and high time-count setting for the post-scale counters. To determine the duty cycle choices, the Intel® Quartus® Prime software uses the frequency input and the required multiply or divide rate.
The post-scale counter value determines the precision of the duty cycle. The precision is defined as 50% divided by the post-scale counter value. For example, if the C0 counter is 10, steps of 5% are possible for duty cycle choices between 5 to 90%.
Combining the programmable duty cycle with programmable phase shift allows the generation of precise nonoverlapping clocks.
The PLL bandwidth is the measure of the PLL’s ability to track the input clock and its associated jitter. The Intel® MAX® 10 PLLs provide advanced control of the PLL bandwidth using the programmable characteristics of the PLL loop, including loop filter and charge pump. The 3-dB frequency of the closed-loop gain in the PLL determines the PLL bandwidth. The bandwidth is approximately the unity gain point for open loop PLL response.
The Intel® MAX® 10 devices use phase shift to implement clock delays. You can phase shift the output clocks from the Intel® MAX® 10 PLLs using one of the following methods:
- Fine resolution using VCO phase taps
- Coarse resolution using counter starting time
The VCO phase output and counter starting time are the most accurate methods of inserting delays. These methods are purely based on counter settings, which are independent of process, voltage, and temperature.
The Intel® MAX® 10 devices support dynamic phase shifting of VCO phase taps only. The phase shift is configurable for any number of times. Each phase shift takes about one scanclk cycle, allowing you to implement large phase shifts quickly.
Fine Resolution Phase Shift
Fine resolution phase shifts are implemented by allowing any of the output counters (C[4..0]) or the M counter to use any of the eight phases of the VCO as the reference clock. This allows you to adjust the delay time with a fine resolution. The following equation shows the minimum delay time that you can insert using this method.
For example, if fREF is 100 MHz, N = 1, and M = 8, then fVCO = 800 MHz, and Φfine = 156.25 ps. The PLL operating frequency defines this phase shift, a value that depends on the reference clock frequency and counter settings.
The following figure shows an example of phase shift insertion using the fine resolution through VCO phase taps method. The eight phases from the VCO are shown and labeled for reference.
- CLK0 is based on 0° phase from the VCO and has the C value for the counter set to one.
- CLK1 signal is divided by four, two VCO clocks for high time and two VCO clocks for low time. CLK1 is based on the 135° phase tap from the VCO and has the C value for the counter set to one.
- CLK2 signal is also divided by four. In this case, the two clocks are offset by 3 Φfine. CLK2 is based on the 0° phase from the VCO but has the C value for the counter set to three. This creates a delay of two Φcoarse (two complete VCO periods).
Coarse Resolution Phase Shift
Coarse resolution phase shifts are implemented by delaying the start of the counters for a predetermined number of counter clocks.
The clock switchover feature allows the PLL to switch between two reference input clocks. Use this feature for clock redundancy or for a dual-clock domain application where a system turns on the redundant clock if the previous clock stops running. The design can perform clock switchover automatically when the clock is no longer toggling or based on a user-controlled signal, clkswitch.
The following clock switchover modes are supported in Intel® MAX® 10 PLLs:
- Automatic switchover—The clock sense circuit monitors the current reference clock. If the current reference clock stops toggling, the reference clock automatically switches to inclk0 or inclk1 clock.
- Manual clock switchover—The clkswitch signal controls the clock switchover. When the clkswitch signal goes from logic low to high, and stays high for at least three clock cycles, the reference clock to the PLL switches from inclk0 to inclk1, or vice-versa.
- Automatic switchover with manual override—This mode combines automatic switchover and manual clock switchover. When the clkswitch signal goes high, it overrides the automatic clock switchover function. As long as the clkswitch signal is high, any further switchover action is blocked.
The Intel® MAX® 10 PLLs support a fully configurable clock switchover capability.
When the current reference clock is not present, the clock sense block automatically switches to the backup clock for PLL reference. You can select a clock source at the backup clock by connecting it to the inclk1 port of the PLL in your design.
The clock switchover circuit also sends out three status signals—clkbad, clkbad, and activeclock—from the PLL to implement a custom switchover circuit in the logic array.
In automatic switchover mode, the clkbad and clkbad signals indicate the status of the two clock inputs. When the clkbad and clkbad signals are asserted, the clock sense block detects that the corresponding clock input has stopped toggling. These two signals are not valid if the frequency difference between inclk0 and inclk1 is greater than 20%.
The activeclock signal indicates which of the two clock inputs (inclk0 or inclk1) is selected as the reference clock to the PLL. When the frequency difference between the two clock inputs is more than 20%, the activeclock signal is the only valid status signal.
When the current reference clock to the PLL stops toggling, use the switchover circuitry to automatically switch from inclk0 to inclk1 that runs at the same frequency. This automatic switchover can switch back and forth between the inclk0 and inclk1 clocks any number of times when one of the two clocks fails and the other clock is available.
For example, in applications that require a redundant clock with the same frequency as the reference clock, the switchover state machine generates a signal (clksw) that controls the multiplexer select input. In this case, inclk1 becomes the reference clock for the PLL.
When using automatic clock switchover mode, the following requirements must be satisfied:
- Both clock inputs must be running when the FPGA is configured.
- The period of the two clock inputs differ by no more than 20%.
If the current clock input stops toggling while the other clock is also not toggling, switchover is not initiated and the clkbad[0..1] signals are not valid. If both clock inputs do not have the same frequency, but their period difference is within 20%, the clock sense block detects when a clock stops toggling. However, the PLL might lose lock after the switchover completes and needs time to relock.
In automatic switchover with manual override mode, you can use the clkswitch signal for user- or system-controlled switch conditions. You can use this mode for same-frequency switchover, or to switch between inputs of different frequencies.
For example, if inclk0 is 66 MHz and inclk1 is 200 MHz, you must control the switchover using the clkswitch signal. The automatic clock sense circuitry cannot monitor clock input (inclk0 and inclk1) frequencies with a frequency difference of more than 20%.
This feature is useful when clock sources originate from multiple cards on the backplane, requiring a system-controlled switchover between frequencies of operation.
You must choose the backup clock frequency and set the M, N, and C counters so that the VCO operates within the recommended frequency range.
The following figure shows a clock switchover waveform controlled by the clkswitch signal. In this case, both clock sources are functional and inclk0 is selected as the reference clock. The clkswitch signal goes high, which starts the switchover sequence. On the falling edge of inclk0, the counter’s reference clock, muxout, is gated off to prevent clock glitching. On the falling edge of inclk1, the reference clock multiplexer switches from inclk0 to inclk1 as the PLL reference. The activeclock signal is asserted to indicate the clock that is currently feeding the PLL, which is inclk1.
In automatic override with manual switchover mode, the activeclock signal mirrors the clkswitch signal. Since both clocks are still functional during the manual switch, neither clkbad signal goes high. Because the switchover circuit is positive-edge sensitive, the falling edge of the clkswitch signal does not cause the circuit to switch back from inclk1 to inclk0. When the clkswitch signal goes high again, the process repeats.
The clkswitch signal and automatic switch work only if the clock being switched to is available. If the clock is not available, the state machine waits until the clock is available.
In manual clock switchover mode, the clkswitch signal controls whether inclk0 or inclk1 is selected as the input clock to the PLL. By default, inclk0 is selected.
A clock switchover event is initiated when the clkswitch signal transitions from logic low to logic high, and is being held high for at least three inclk cycles. You must bring the clkswitch signal back to low again to perform another switchover event. If you do not require another switchover event, you can leave the clkswitch signal in a logic high state after the initial switch. Pulsing the clkswitch signal high for at least three inclk cycles performs another switchover event.
If inclk0 and inclk1 have different frequencies and are always running, the minimum amount of time for which clkswitch signal is high must be greater than or equal to three of the slower-frequency inclk0 and inclk1 cycles.
Two PLLs are cascaded to each other through the clock network. If your design cascades PLLs, the source (upstream) PLL must have a low-bandwidth setting and the destination (downstream) PLL must have a high-bandwidth setting.
When cascading counters to implement a larger division of the high-frequency VCO clock, the cascaded counters behave as one counter with the product of the individual counter settings.
For example, if C0 = 4 and C1 = 2, the cascaded value is C0 x C1 = 8.
The Intel® Quartus® Prime software automatically sets all the post-scale counter values for cascading in the configuration file. Post-scale counter cascading cannot be performed using PLL reconfiguration.
The PLLs use several divide counters and different VCO phase taps to perform frequency synthesis and phase shifts. In Intel® MAX® 10 PLLs, you can reconfigure both counter settings and phase shift the PLL output clock in real time. You can also change the charge pump and loop filter components, which dynamically affects the PLL bandwidth.
The following PLL components are configurable in real time:
- Pre-scale counter (N)
- Feedback counter (M)
- Post-scale output counters (C0-C4)
- Charge pump current (ICP)
- Loop filter components (R, C)
You can use these PLL components to update the following settings in real time without reconfiguring the entire FPGA:
- Output clock frequency
- PLL bandwidth
- Phase shift
The ability to reconfigure the PLL in real time is useful in applications that may operate in multiple frequencies. It is also useful in prototyping environments, allowing you to sweep PLL output frequencies and dynamically adjust the output clock phase.
For instance, a system generating test patterns is required to generate and send patterns at 75 or 150 MHz, depending on the requirements of the device under test. Reconfiguring the PLL components in real time allows you to switch between two such output frequencies in a few microseconds.
You can also use this feature to adjust clock-to-out (tCO) delays in real time by changing the PLL output clock phase shift. This approach eliminates the need to regenerate a configuration file with the new PLL settings.
The counter settings are updated synchronously to the clock frequency of the individual counters. Therefore, not all counters update simultaneously.
The dynamic reconfiguration scheme uses configuration files, such as the Hexadecimal-format file (.hex) or the Memory Initialization file (.mif). These files are used together with the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core to perform the dynamic reconfiguration.
Intel recommends using the clkena signals when switching the clock source to the PLLs or GCLK. The recommended sequence is as follows:
- Disable the primary output clock by deasserting the clkena signal.
- Switch to the secondary clock using the dynamic select signals of the clock control block.
- Allow some clock cycles of the secondary clock to pass before reasserting the clkena signal. The exact number of clock cycles to wait before enabling the secondary clock depends on your design. You can build a custom logic to ensure a glitch-free transition when switching between different clock sources.
The following guidelines describe the restrictions associated with the signal sources that can drive the inclk input:
- You must use the inclk ports that are consistent with the clkselect ports.
- When you are using multiple input sources, the inclk ports can only be driven by the dedicated clock input pins and the PLL clock outputs.
- If the clock control block feeds any inclk port of another clock control block, both clock control blocks must be able to be reduced to a single clock control block of equivalent functionality.
- When you are using the glitch-free switchover feature, the clock you are switching from must be active. If the clock is not active, the switchover circuit cannot transition from the clock you originally selected.
You cannot drive the PLLs with internal oscillator.
You must include the areset signal in your designs if one of the following conditions is true:
- PLL reconfiguration or clock switchover is enabled in your design.
- Phase relationships between the PLL input clock and output clocks must be maintained after a loss-of-lock condition.
- The input clock to the PLL is toggling or unstable at power-up.
- The areset signal is asserted after the input clock is stable and within specifications.
The lock time of a PLL is the amount of time required by the PLL to attain the target frequency and phase relationship after device power-up, after a change in the PLL output frequency, or after resetting the PLL.
A PLL might lose lock for a number of reasons, such as the following causes:
- Excessive jitter on the input clock.
- Excessive switching noise on the clock inputs of the PLL.
- Excessive noise from the power supply, causing high output jitter and possible loss of lock.
- A glitch or stopping of the input clock to the PLL.
- Resetting the PLL by asserting the areset port of the PLL.
- An attempt to reconfigure the PLL might cause the M counter, N counter, or phase shift to change, causing the PLL to lose lock. However, changes to the post-scale counters do not affect the PLL locked signal.
- PLL input clock frequency drifts outside the lock range specification.
- The PFD is disabled using the pfdena port. When this happens, the PLL output phase and frequency tend to drift outside of the lock window.
The ALTPLL IP core allows you to monitor the PLL locking process using a lock signal named locked and also allows you to set the PLL to self-reset on loss of lock.
Each Intel® MAX® 10 PLL supports up to five output clocks. You can use the output clock port as a core output clock or an external output clock port. The core output clock feeds the FPGA core and the external output clock feeds the dedicated pins on the FPGA.
The ALTPLL IP core does not have a dedicated output enable port. You can disable the PLL output using the areset signal to disable the PLL output counters.
Consider the following guidelines when cascading PLLs:
- Set the primary PLL to low bandwidth to help filter jitter. Set the secondary PLL
to high bandwidth to track the jitter from the primary PLL. You can view the
Quartus® Prime software compilation report file to ensure the
PLL bandwidth ranges do not overlap. If the bandwidth ranges overlap, jitter peaking can
occur in the cascaded PLL scheme.
Note: You can get an estimate of the PLL deterministic jitter and static phase error (SPE) by using the Timing Analyzer in the Intel® Quartus® Prime software. Use the SDC command derive_clock_uncertainty to generate a report titled PLLJ_PLLSPE_INFO.txt in your project directory. Then, use set_clock_uncertainty command to add jitter and SPE values to your clock constraints.
- Keep the secondary PLL in a reset state until the primary PLL has locked to ensure the phase settings are correct on the secondary PLL.
- You cannot connect any of the inclk ports of any PLLs in a cascaded scheme to the clock outputs from PLLs in the cascaded scheme.
Use the following guidelines to design with clock switchover in PLLs:
- Clock loss detection and automatic clock switchover requires that the frequency difference between inclk0 and inclk1 is within 20% range. Failing to meet this requirement causes the clkbad and clkbad signals to function improperly.
- When using manual clock switchover, the frequency difference between inclk0 and inclk1 can be more than 20%. However, differences between the two clock sources (frequency, phase, or both) can cause the PLL to lose lock. Resetting the PLL ensures that the correct phase relationships are maintained between the input and output clocks.
- Both inclk0 and inclk1 must be running when the clkswitch signal goes high to start the manual clock switchover event. Failing to meet this requirement causes the clock switchover to malfunction.
- Applications that require a clock switchover feature and a small frequency drift must use a low-bandwidth PLL. When referencing input clock changes, the low-bandwidth PLL reacts slower than a high-bandwidth PLL. When the switchover happens, the low-bandwidth PLL propagates the stoppage of the clock to the output at a slower speed than the high-bandwidth PLL. The low-bandwidth PLL filters out jitter on the reference clock. However, be aware that the low-bandwidth PLL also increases lock time.
- After a switchover occurs, there might be a finite resynchronization period for the PLL to lock onto a new clock. The exact amount of time it takes for the PLL to relock depends on the PLL configuration.
- The phase relationship between the input clock to the PLL and output clock from the PLL is important in your design. Assert areset for 10 ns after performing a clock switchover. Wait for the locked signal (or gated lock) to go high before reenabling the output clocks from the PLL.
- Disable the system during switchover if the system is not tolerant of frequency variations during the PLL resynchronization period. You can use the clkbad and clkbad status signals to turn off the PFD (pfdena = 0) so that the VCO maintains its last frequency. You can also use the switchover state machine to switch over to the secondary clock. After enabling the PFD, the output clock enable signals (clkena) can disable clock outputs during the switchover and resynchronization period. After the lock indication is stable, the system can reenable the output clock or clocks.
- The VCO frequency gradually decreases when the primary clock is lost and then increases as the VCO locks onto the secondary clock, as shown in the following figure. After the VCO locks onto the secondary clock, some overshoot can occur (an over-frequency condition) in the VCO frequency.
Consider the following guidelines when using .mif streaming in PLL reconfiguration:
- 10M02 devices do not support .mif streaming in PLL reconfiguration due to flash size limitation. Intel recommends using an external flash.
- 10M04, 10M08, 10M16, 10M25, 10M40, and 10M50 devices only support .mif streaming in single image mode. Intel recommends using an external flash for dual image mode. The Intel® MAX® 10 devices do not support using both dual image mode and PLL reconfiguration with .mif simultaneously.
scandone signal must be low before the second PLL reconfiguration. For scandone signal to go low, PLL areset signal must be asserted.
The clock control block (ALTCLKCTRL) IP core is a clock control function for configuring the clock control block.
The common applications of the ALTCLKCTRL IP core are as follows:
- Dynamic clock source selection—When using the clock control block, you can select the dynamic clock source that drives the global clock network.
- Dynamic power-down of a clock network—The dynamic clock enable or disable feature allows internal logic to power down the clock network. When a clock network is powered down, all the logic fed by that clock network is not toggling, thus reducing the overall power consumption of the device.
The ALTCLKCTRL IP core provides the following features:
- Supports clock control block operation mode specifications
- Supports specification of the number of input clock sources
- Provides an active high clock enable control input
The ALTPLL IP core specifies the PLL circuitry. You can use this IP core to configure the PLL types, operation modes, and advanced features of the PLL.
The PLL lock range is between the minimum (Freq min lock parameter) and maximum (Freq min lock parameter) input frequency values for which the PLL can achieve lock. Changing the input frequency might cause the PLL to lose lock, but if the input clock remains within the minimum and maximum frequency specifications, the PLL is able to achieve lock. The Intel® Quartus® Prime software shows these input frequency values in the PLL Summary report located under the Resource Section of the Fitter folder in the Compilation Report.
The Intel® Quartus® Prime software does not necessarily pick values for the PLL parameters to maximize the lock range. For example, when you specify a 75 MHz input clock in the ALTPLL parameter editor, the actual PLL lock range might be between 70 MHz to 90 MHz. If your application requires a lock range of 50 MHz to 100 MHz, the default lock range of this PLL is insufficient.
For devices that support clock switchover in PLLs, you can use the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor to maximize the lock range.
To extract valid parameter values to maximize your PLL lock range, perform the following steps:
- In the schematic editor, double-click the ALTPLL instance in your design to open the ALTPLL parameter editor.
On the General/Modes page, for
What is the frequency of the inclk0 input?, type the value
of the low end of your desired PLL lock range.
For example, if your application requires a lock range of 50 MHz to 100 MHz, type 50 MHz.
- On the Inputs/Lock page, turn on Create output file(s) using the 'Advanced' PLL parameters.
On the Clock switchover page, turn on
Create an 'inclk1' input for a second input clock and enter the high end
of your lock range as the frequency for
For example, if your application requires a lock range of 50 MHz to 100 MHz, type 100 MHz.
- Set the rest of the parameters in the remaining pages of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
- Compile your project and note the lock range shown in the PLL Summary report. If it is satisfactory, note all of the values for the PLL from this report, such as the M value, N value, charge pump current, loop filter resistance, and loop filter capacitance.
- In the schematic editor, double-click the ALTPLL instance in your design to open the ALTPLL parameter editor.
- On the Clock switchover page, turn off Create an 'inclk1' input for a second input clock.
- Click Finish to update the PLL wrapper file.
In a text editor, open the PLL wrapper file. Modify all of the values for the parameters listed in
step 6. Save the changes.
- If the wrapper file is in Verilog format, go to the defparam section.
- If the wrapper file is in VHDL HDL, go to the Generic Map section.
- Compile your project.
- Check the PLL Summary report to confirm that the PLL lock range meets your requirements. The modified PLL should have the desired lock range.
If your input clock frequency is too close to the end of the desired PLL lock range—for example the low end of the desired lock range is 50 MHz and the input clock frequency is 50 MHz, the PLL might not maintain lock when the input clock has jitter or the frequency drifts below 50 MHz. You may choose to expand your PLL lock range to ensure your expected input clock frequency is further from the end of the range. For this example, you can enter 45 MHz and 105 MHz to ensure that your target lock range of 50 MHz to 100 MHz is within the PLL lock range.
The Intel® Quartus® Prime software prompts an error message if it is unable to implement your preferred lock range using this procedure. Therefore, you have to look into other options, such as PLL reconfiguration to support your input frequency range.
An advanced level of control is also possible for precise control of the PLL loop filter characteristics. This level allows you to explicitly select the following advanced parameters:
- Charge pump current (charge_pump_current)
- Loop filter resistance (loop_filter_r)
- Loop filter capacitance(loop_filter_c)
This option is intended for advanced users who know the exact details of their PLL configuration. You can use this option if you understand the parameters well enough to set them optimally. The files generated are not intended to be reused by the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor. After the ALTPLL IP core output files are specified using the advanced parameters, the Intel® Quartus® Prime compiler cannot change them. For example, the compiler cannot perform optimization. Thus, your design cannot benefit from improved algorithms of the compiler. The Intel® Quartus® Prime compiler cannot select better settings or change some settings that the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor finds to be incompatible with your design.
The parameter settings to generate output files using advanced PLL parameters are located on the Inputs/Lock page of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
Turn on Create output file(s) using the 'Advanced' PLL parameters to enable the feature.
When you turn on this option, the generated output files contain all of the initial counter values used in the PLL. You can use these values for functional simulation in a third-party simulator.
These parameter settings create no additional top-level ports.
To reconfigure the PLL counters, perform the following steps:
- Assert the scanclkena signal at least one scanclk cycle prior to shifting in the first bit of scandata (Dn).
- Shift the serial data (scandata) into the scan chain on the second rising edge of scanclk.
- After all 144 bits have been scanned into the scan chain, deassert the scanclkena signal to prevent inadvertent shifting of bits in the scan chain.
Assert the configupdate signal for one scanclk cycle to update the PLL
counters with the contents of the scan chain.
The scandone signal goes high indicating that the PLL is being reconfigured. A falling edge indicates that the PLL counters have been updated with new settings.
- Reset the PLL using the areset signal if you make any changes to the M, N, post-scale output C counters, or the ICP , R, and C settings.
- You can repeat steps 1 through 5 to reconfigure the PLL any number of times.
When reconfiguring the counter clock frequency, you cannot reconfigure the corresponding counter phase shift settings using the same interface. You can reconfigure phase shifts in real time using the dynamic phase shift reconfiguration interface. If you wish to keep the same nonzero phase shift setting (for example, 90°) on the clock output, you must reconfigure the phase shift after reconfiguring the counter clock frequency.
You can configure the multiply or divide values and duty cycle of the post-scale counters in real time. Each counter has an 8-bit high time setting and an 8-bit low time setting. The duty cycle is the ratio of output high or low time to the total cycle time, which is the sum of the two.
The post-scale counters have two control bits:
- rbypass—For bypassing the counter
- rselodd—For selecting the output clock duty cycle
When the rbypass bit is set to 1, it bypasses the counter, resulting in a division by one. When this bit is set to 0, the PLL computes the effective division of the VCO output frequency based on the high and low time counters. The PLL implements this duty cycle by transitioning the output clock from high-to-low on the rising edge of the VCO output clock.
For example, if the post-scale divide factor is 10, the high and low count values are set to 5 and 5 respectively, to achieve a 50–50% duty cycle. However, a 4 and 6 setting for the high and low count values, respectively, would produce an output clock with 40–60% duty cycle.
The rselodd bit indicates an odd divide factor for the VCO output frequency with a 50% duty cycle. The PLL implements this duty cycle by transitioning the output clock from high-to-low on a falling edge of the VCO output clock.
For example, if the post-scale divide factor is 3, the high and low time count values are 2 and 1 respectively, to achieve this division. This implies a 67%–33% duty cycle. If you need a 50%–50% duty cycle, you must set the rselodd control bit to 1 to achieve this duty cycle despite an odd division factor. When you set rselodd = 1, subtract 0.5 cycles from the high time and add 0.5 cycles to the low time.
The calculation for the example is shown as follows:
- High time count = 2 cycles
- Low time count = 1 cycle
rselodd = 1 effectively equals:
- High time count = 1.5 cycles
- Low time count = 1.5 cycles
- Duty cycle = (1.5/3)% high time count and (1.5/3)% low time count
The Intel® MAX® 10 PLLs have a 144-bit scan chain.
|Block Name||Number of Bits|
|C4 6||16||2 7||18|
|Total number of bits||144|
You can reconfigure the following settings to update the PLL bandwidth in real time:
- Charge pump (ICP)
- Loop filter resistor (R)
- Loop filter capacitor (C)
Bypassing a PLL counter results in a multiplification (M counter) or a division (N, C0 to C4 counters) factor of one.
|Description||PLL Scan Chain Bits [0..8] Settings|
|PLL counter bypassed||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||1 9|
|PLL counter not bypassed||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||X||09|
To bypass any of the PLL counters, set the bypass bit to 1. The values on the other bits are ignored.
To perform one dynamic phase shift step, perform the following steps:
- Set PHASEUPDOWN and PHASECOUNTERSELECT as required.
- Assert PHASESTEP for at least two SCANCLK cycles. Each PHASESTEP pulse allows one phase shift.
- Deassert PHASESTEP after PHASEDONE goes low.
- Wait for PHASEDONE to go high.
- Repeat steps 1 through 4 as many times as required to perform multiple phase shifts.
PHASEUPDOWN and PHASECOUNTERSELECT signals are synchronous to SCANCLK and must meet the tsu and th requirements with respect to the SCANCLK edges.
You can repeat dynamic phase-shifting indefinitely. For example, in a design where the VCO frequency is set to 1,000 MHz and the output clock frequency is set to 100 MHz, performing 40 dynamic phase shifts (each one yields 125 ps phase shift) results in shifting the output clock by 180º, which is a phase shift of 5 ns.
The PHASESTEP signal is latched on the negative edge of SCANCLK (a,c) and must remain asserted for at least two SCANCLK cycles. Deassert PHASESTEP after PHASEDONE goes low.
On the second SCANCLK rising edge (b,d) after PHASESTEP is latched, the values of PHASEUPDOWN and PHASECOUNTERSELECT are latched. The PLL starts dynamic phase-shifting for the specified counters and in the indicated direction.
The PHASEDONE signal is deasserted synchronous to SCANCLK at the second rising edge (b,d) and remains low until the PLL finishes dynamic phase-shifting. Depending on the VCO and SCANCLK frequencies, PHASEDONE low time may be greater than or less than one SCANCLK cycle.
You can perform another dynamic phase-shift after the PHASEDONE signal goes from low to high. Each PHASESTEP pulse enables one phase shift. The PHASESTEP pulses must be at least one SCANCLK cycle apart.
|PLL Counter Selection||PHASECOUNTERSELECT |||||
|All output counters||0||0||0|
The finest phase shift step resolution you can get in the ALTPLL IP core is 1/8 of the VCO period. If the VCO frequency is at the lower end of the supported VCO range, the phase shift step resolution might be larger than preferred for your design.
You can modify your phase shift resolution using the dynamic phase reconfiguration feature of the PLL. If you want to modify the phase shift resolution without the dynamic phase reconfiguration feature enabled, perform the following steps:
- Create an ALTPLL instance. Make sure you specify the speed grade of your target device and the PLL type.
- On the PLL Reconfiguration page, turn on Create optional inputs for dynamic phase reconfiguration and Enable phase shift step resolution.
- On the Output Clocks page, set your desired phase shift for each required output clock. Note all the internal PLL settings shown.
- On the Bandwidth/SS page, click More Details to see the internal PLL settings. Note all of the settings shown.
- On the Inputs/Lock page, turn on Create output file(s) using the ‘Advanced’ PLL Parameters.
- Return to the PLL Reconfiguration page and turn off Create Optional Inputs for Dynamic Phase Reconfiguration.
Finish to generate the PLL instantiation file(s).
When using Advanced Parameters, the PLL wrapper file (< ALTPLL_instantiation_name >.v or < ALTPLL_instantiation_name >.vhd) is written in a format that allows you to identify the PLL parameters. The parameters are listed in the Generic Map section of the VHDL file, or in the defparam section of the Verilog file.
- Open your PLL instantiation wrapper file and locate either the Generic Map or the defparam section.
- Modify the settings to match the settings that you noted in steps 3 and 4.
- Save the PLL instantiation wrapper file and compile your design.
- Verify that the output clock frequencies and phases are correct in the PLL Usage report located under the Resource section of the Fitter folder in the Compilation Report.
By using this technique, you can apply valid PLL parameters as provided by the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor to optimize the settings for your design.
Alternatively, you can leave the dynamic phase reconfiguration option enabled and tie the relevant input ports—phasecounterselect[3..0], phaseupdown, phasestep, and scanclk—to constants, if you prefer not to manually edit the PLL wrapper file using the Advanced PLL Parameters option.
The ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core implements reconfiguration logic to facilitate dynamic real-time reconfiguration of PLLs. You can use the IP core to update the output clock frequency, PLL bandwidth, and phase shifts in real time, without reconfiguring the entire FPGA.
Use the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core in designs that must support dynamic changes in the frequency and phase shift of clocks and other frequency signals. The IP core is also useful in prototyping environments because it allows you to sweep PLL output frequencies and dynamically adjust the output clock phase. You can also adjust the clock-to-output (tCO) delays in real-time by changing the output clock phase shift. This approach eliminates the need to regenerate a configuration file with the new PLL settings. This operation requires dynamic phase-shifting.
For details about the resource usage and performance of the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core, refer to the compilation reports in the Intel® Quartus® Prime software.
To view the compilation reports for the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core in the Intel® Quartus® Prime software, follow these steps:
- On the Processing menu, click Start Compilation to run a full compilation.
- After compiling the design, on the Processing menu, click Compilation Report.
- In the Table of Contents browser, expand the Fitter folder by clicking the “+” icon.
- Under Fitter, expand Resource section, and select Resource Usage Summary to view the resource usage information.
- Under Fitter, expand Resource section, and select Resource Utilization by Entity to view the resource utilization information.
The Internal Oscillator IP core specifies the internal oscillator frequencies for the devices.
|How do you want to use the ALTCLKCTRL||For global clock, or For external path||
Specify the ALTCLKCTRL buffering mode. You can select from the following modes:
|How many clock inputs would you like?||1, 2, 3, or 4||
Specify the number of input clock sources for the clock control block. You can specify up to four clock inputs.
You can change the number of clock inputs only if you choose For global clock option.
|Create ‘ena’ port to enable or disable the clock network driven by this buffer||On or Off||Turn on this option if you want to create an active high clock enable signal to enable or disable the clock network.|
|Ensure glitch-free switchover implementation||On or Off||
Turn on this option to implement a glitch-free switchover when you use multiple clock inputs.
You must ensure the currently selected clock is running before switching to another source. If the selected clock is not running, the glitch-free switchover implementation will not be able to switch to the new clock source.
By default, the clkselect port is set to 00. A clock must be applied to inclk0x for the values on the clkselect ports to be read.
Input that dynamically selects the clock source to drive the clock network that is driven by the clock buffer.
Input port [1 DOWNTO 0] wide.
If omitted, the default is GND.
If this signal is connected, only the global clock network can be driven by this clock control block.
The following list shows the signal selection for the binary value:
Clock enable of the clock buffer.
If omitted, the default value is VCC.
Clock input of the clock buffer.
Input port [1 DOWNTO 0] wide.
You can specify up to two clock inputs, inclk[1..0].
Clock pins, clock outputs from the PLL, and core signals can drive the inclk port.
Multiple clock inputs are only supported for the global clock networks.
|outclk||Required||Output of the clock buffer.|
The following tables list the IP core parameters applicable to Intel® MAX® 10 devices.
You can set the operation mode for PLL in the General/Modes page of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
|Which device speed grade will you be using?||Any, 7, or 8||Specify the speed grade if you are not already using a device with the fastest speed. The lower the number, the faster the speed grade.|
|What is the frequency of the inclock0 input?||—||Specify the frequency of the input clock signal.|
|Use the feedback path inside the PLL||In normal mode, In source-synchronous compensation mode, In zero-delay buffer mode, or With no compensation||
Specify which operation mode to use.
For source-synchronous mode and zero-delay buffer mode, you must make PLL Compensation assignments using the Assignment Editor in addition to setting the appropriate mode in the IP core. The assignment allows you to specify an output pin as a compensation target for a PLL in zero-delay buffer mode, or to specify an input pin or group of input pins as compensation targets for a PLL in source-synchronous mode.
|Which output clock will be compensated for?||C0, C1, C2, C3, or C4||
Specify which PLL output port to compensate.
The drop down list contains all output clock ports for the selected device. The correct output clock selection depends on the operation mode that you select.
For example, for normal mode, select the core output clock. For zero-delay buffer mode, select the external output clock.
The parameter settings for the control signals are located on the Inputs/Lock page of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
Turn on the control signal you want to create from the options available.
You can configure the bandwidth of the ALTPLL IP core on the Bandwidth/SS page of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
The ALTPLL parameter editor chooses the best possible bandwidth values to achieve the desired PLL settings. In some cases, you can get a bandwidth value outside the Low and High preset range.
You can use the programmable bandwidth feature with the clock switchover feature to get the PLL output settings that you desire. You must set the bandwidth to Auto if you want to enable the spread-spectrum feature.
|Preset||Low||PLL with a low bandwidth has better jitter rejection but a slower lock time.|
|Medium||PLL with a medium bandwidth has a balance between lock time and jitter rejection.|
|High||PLL with a high bandwidth has a faster lock time but tracks more jitter.|
The table on the right in the Bandwidth/SS page shows the values of the following components:
- Charge pump current
- Loop filter resistance
- Loop filter capacitance
- M counter
These parameter settings create no additional top-level ports.
The parameter settings for clock switchover feature are located on the Clock switchover page of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
|Create an 'inclk1' input for a second input clock||On or Off||
Turn on this option to enable the switchover feature.
The inclk0 signal is by default the primary input clock signal of the ALTPLL IP core.
|Create a 'clkswitch' input to manually select between the input clocks||—||Select this option for manual clock switchover mode.|
|Allow PLL to automatically control the switching between input clocks||—||
Select this option for automatic clock switchover mode.
The automatic switchover is initiated during loss of lock or when the inclk0 signal stops toggling.
|Create a 'clkswitch' input to dynamically control the switching between input clocks||On or Off||
Turn on this option for automatic clock switchover with manual override mode.
The automatic switchover is initiated during loss of lock or when the clkswitch signal is asserted.
|Perform the input clock switchover after (number) input clock cycles||On or Off||
Turn on this option to specify the number of clock cycles to wait before the PLL performs the clock switchover.
The allowed number of clock cycles to wait is device-dependent.
|Create an 'activeclock' output to indicate the input clock being used||On or Off||
Turn on this option to monitor which input clock signal is driving the PLL.
When the current clock signal is inclk0, the activeclock signal is low. When the current clock signal is inclk1, the activeclock signal is high.
|Create a 'clkbad' output for each input clock||On or Off||
Turn on this option to monitor when the input clock signal has stopped toggling.
The clkbad0 signal monitors the inclk0 signal. The clkbad1 signal monitors the inclk1 signal.
The clkbad0 signal goes high when the inclk0 signal stops toggling. The clkbad1 signal goes high when the inclk1 signal stops toggling. The clkbad signals remain low when the input clock signals are toggling.
The parameter settings for the normal dynamic reconfiguration scheme are located on the PLL Reconfiguration page of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
|Create optional inputs for dynamic reconfiguration||On or Off||Turn on this option to enable all the PLL reconfiguration ports for this instantiation—scanclk, scanclkena, scandata, scandone, scandataout, and configupdate.|
|Initial Configuration File||—||Specify the location of the configuration file that is used to initialize the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core.|
|Additional Configuration File(s)||—||Specify additional configuration file. This file might contain additional settings for the PLL, or might be used to initialize the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core.|
The parameter settings to enable the dynamic phase configuration feature are located on the PLL Reconfiguration page of the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor.
|Create optional inputs for dynamic phase reconfiguration||On or Off||
Turn on this option to enable the dynamic phase configuration feature. The following ports are created:
|Enable phase shift step resolution edit||On or Off||
Turn on this option to modify the value for Phase shift step resolution(ps) for each individual PLL output clock on the Output Clocks page.
By default, the finest phase shift resolution value is 1/8 of the VCO period. If the VCO frequency is at the lower end of the supported VCO range, the phase shift resolution might be larger than preferred for your design. Use this option to fine tune the phase shift step resolution.
The Output Clocks page of the ALTPLL parameter editor contains the parameter settings of the clock output signals. You can configure the c0, c1, c2, c3, and c4 clock output signals of the ALTPLL IP core.
Each option has the following two columns:
- Requested settings—The settings that you want to implement.
- Actual settings—The settings closest values that can be implemented in the PLL circuit to best approximate the requested settings.
Use the values in the actual settings column as a guide to adjust the requested settings. If the requested settings for one of the output clocks cannot be approximated, the ALTPLL IP core parameter editor produces a warning message at the top of every page.
|Use this clock||On or Off||
Turn on this option to generate an output clock port in your ALTPLL instance.
The output clock port that is to be compensated for is enabled by default. It cannot be disabled, unless you select a different output clock port to be compensated for.
|Enter output clock frequency||—||Specify the frequency of the output clock signal.|
|Enter output clock parameters||—||Specify the the output clock parameters instead of the frequency.|
|Clock multiplication factor||—||Specify the clock multiplication factor of the signal.|
|Clock division factor||—||Specify the clock division factor of the signal.|
|Clock phase shift||—||
Set the programmable phase shift for an output clock signals.
The smallest phase shift is 1/8 of VCO period. For degree increments, the maximum step size is 45 degrees. You can set smaller steps using the Clock multiplication factor and Clock division factor options.
For example, if the post-scale counter is 32, the smallest phase shift step is 0.1°. The up and down buttons let you cycle through phase shift values. Alternatively, you can enter a number in the phase shift field manually instead of using the buttons.
|Clock duty cycle (%)||—||Set the duty cycle of the output clock signal.|
|Per Clock Feasibility Indicators||—||
Indicate output clocks that contain unachievable settings.
The output clock name in red is the name of the clock with unachievable settings. The clock listed in green has no settings issues, and the grayed-out names are the unselected output clocks. You must adjust the requested settings for the affected output clocks to resolve the warning messages.
The ALTPLL IP core parameter editor calculates the simplest fraction, and displays it in the actual settings column. You can use the copy button to copy values from the actual settings to the requested settings.
For example, if the input clock frequency is 100 MHz, and the requested multiplication and division factors are 205 and 1025 respectively, the output clock frequency is calculated as 100 × 205/1025=20 MHz. The actual settings reflect the simplest fraction—the actual multiplication factor is 1, and the actual division factor is 5.
Resets all counters to initial values, including the GATE_LOCK_COUNTER parameter.
The control input port to dynamically toggle between clock input ports (inclk0 and inclk1 ports), or to manually override the automatic clock switchover.
You should create the clkswitch port if only the inclk1 port is created.
Dynamic full PLL reconfiguration.
The clock inputs that drive the clock network.
If more than one inclk port is created, you must use the clkselect port to specify which clock is used. The inclk0 port must always be connected; connect other clock inputs if switching is necessary.
A dedicated clock pin or PLL output clock can drive this port.
Enables the phase frequency detector (PFD).
When the PFD is disabled, the PLL continues to operate regardless of the input clock. Because the PLL output clock frequency does not change for some time, you can use the pfdena port as a shutdown or cleanup function when a reliable input clock is no longer available.
Specifies counter select. You can use the phasecounterselect[2..0] bits to select either the M or one of the C counters for phase adjustment. One address map to select all C counters. This signal is registered in the PLL on the rising edge of SCANCLK.
Specifies dynamic phase shifting. Logic high enables dynamic phase shifting.
Specifies dynamic phase shift direction. 1= UP, 0 = DOWN. Signal is registered in the PLL on the rising edge of SCANCLK.
Input clock port for the serial scan chain.
Free-running clock from core used in combination with PHASESTEP to enable or disable dynamic phase shifting. Shared with SCANCLK for dynamic reconfiguration.
Clock enable port for the serial scan chain.
Contains the data for the serial scan chain.
Specifies which clock is the primary reference clock when the clock switchover circuit initiates.
If the inclk0 is in use, the activeclock port goes low. If the inclk1 is in use, the activeclock port goes high.
You can set the PLL to automatically initiate the clock switchover when the primary reference clock is not toggling correctly, or you can manually initiate the clock switchover using the clkswitch input port.
The clock output of the PLL.
clkbad1 and clkbad0 ports check for input clock toggling.
If the inclk0 port stops toggling, the clkbad0 port goes high. If the inclk1 port stops toggling, the clkbad1 port goes high.
This output port acts as an indicator when the PLL has reached phase-locked. The locked port stays high as long as the PLL is locked, and stays low when the PLL is out-of-lock.
The number of cycles needed to gate the locked signal is based on the PLL input clock. The gated-lock circuitry is clocked by the PLL input clock. The maximum lock time for the PLL is provided in the Intel® MAX® 10 FPGA Device Datasheet.
Take the maximum lock time of the PLL and divide it by the period of the PLL input clock. The result is the number of clock cycles needed to gate the locked signal.
The lock signal is an asynchronous output of the PLL. The PLL lock signal is derived from the reference clock and feedback clock feeding the phase frequency detector (PFD) as follows:
The PLL asserts the locked port when the phases and frequencies of the reference clock and feedback clock are the same or within the lock circuit tolerance. When the difference between the two clock signals goes beyond the lock circuit tolerance, the PLL loses lock.
This output port indicates that dynamic phase reconfiguration is completed.
When phasedone signal is asserted, it indicates to core logic that the phase adjustment is complete and PLL is ready to act on a possible second adjustment pulse. This signal asserts based on internal PLL timing and deasserts on rising edge of SCANCLK.
The data output for the serial scan chain.
You can use the scandataout port to determine when PLL reconfiguration completes. The last output is cleared when reconfiguration completes.
This output port indicates that the scan chain write operation is initiated.
The scandone port goes high when the scan chain write operation initiates, and goes low when the scan chain write operation completes.
|Parameter Settings||Currently Selected Device Family||—||Specifies the chosen device family.|
|Which scan chain type will you be using?||—||The scan chain is a serial shift register chain that is used to store settings. It acts like a cache. When you assert the reconfig signal, the PLL is reconfigured with the values in the cache. The type of scan chain must follow the type of PLL to be reconfigured. The scan chain type has a default value of Top/Bottom.|
|Do you want to specify the initial value of the scan chain?||
No, leave it blank,
Yes, use this file for the content data
Specifies the initial value of the scan chain. Select No, leave it blank to not specify a file or select Yes, use this file for the content data to browse for a .hex or .mif file.
The option to initialize from a ROM is not available. However, you can choose to add ports to write to the scan chain from an external ROM during runtime by turning on Add ports to write to the scan chain from external ROM during run time.
|Add ports to write to the scan chain from external ROM during run time||On, Off||Turn on this option to take advantage of cycling multiple configuration files, which are stored in external ROMs during user mode.|
|EDA||Simulation Libraries||—||Specifies the libraries for functional simulation.|
|Generate netlist||On, Off||Turn on this option to generate synthesis area and timing estimation netlist.|
Specifies the types of files to be generated. A gray checkmark indicates a file that is automatically generated; an unchecked check box indicates an optional file. Choose from the following types of files:
If the Generate netlist option is turned on, the file for that netlist is also available (<function name>_syn.v).
Clock input for loading individual parameters. This signal also clocks the PLL during reconfiguration.
The clock input port must be connected to a valid clock.
Refer to the Intel® MAX® 10 FPGA Device Datasheet for the clock fMAX.
Asynchronous reset input to the IP core.
Intel recommends that you reset this IP core before first use to guarantee that it is in a valid state. However, it does power up in the reset state. This port must be connected.
Data input that provides parameter value when writing parameters.
This 9-bit input port provides the data to be written to the scan cache during a write operation. The bit width of the counter parameter to be written determines the number of bits of data_in that are read into the cache.
For example, the low bit count of the C0 counter is 8-bit wide, so data_in[7..0] is read to the correct cache location. The bypass mode for the C0 counter is 1-bit wide, so data_in is read for the value of this parameter.
If omitted, the default value is 0.
Specifies the counter type.
An input port in the form of a 4-bit bus that selects which counter type should be selected for the corresponding operation (read, write, or reconfig).
Refer to the counter_type[3..0] settings table for the mapping between the counter_type value and the physical counter to be set.
Specifies the parameter for the value specified in the counter_type port.
An input port in the form of a 3-bit bus that selects which parameter for the given counter type should be updated. The mapping to each parameter type and the corresponding parameter bit-width are defined in the counter_param[3..0] settings table.
Reads the parameter specified with the counter_type and counter_param ports from cache and fed to the data_out port.
When asserted, the read_param signal indicates that the scan cache should be read and fed to data_out. The bit location of the scan cache and the number of bits read and sent to data_out depend on the counter_type and counter_param values. The read_param signal is sampled at the rising clock edge. If the read_param signal is asserted, the parameter value is read from the cache. Assert the read_param signal for 1 clock cycle only to prevent the parameter from being read twice.
The busy signal is asserted on the rising clock edge following the assertion of the read_param signal. While the parameter is read, the busy signal remains asserted. After the busy signal is deasserted, the value on data_out is valid and the next parameter can be loaded. While the busy signal is asserted, the value on data_out is not valid.
When the read_param signal is asserted, the busy signal is only asserted on the following rising edge of the clock and not on the same clock cycle as the read_param signal.
Writes the parameter specified with the counter_type and counter_param ports to the cache with the value specified on the data_in port.
When asserted, the write_param signal indicates that the value on data_in should be written to the parameter specified by counter_type and counter_param. The number of bits read from the data_in port depends on the parameter. The write_param signal is sampled at the rising clock edge. If the write_param signal is asserted, the parameter value is written to the cache. Assert the write_param signal for 1 clock cycle only to prevent the parameter from being written twice.
The busy signal is asserted on the rising clock edge following the assertion of the write_param signal. While the parameter is being written, the busy signal remains asserted and input to data_in is ignored. After the busy signal is deasserted, the next parameter can be written.
When the write_param signal is asserted, the busy signal is only asserted on the following rising edge of the clock. The busy signal is not asserted on the same clock cycle as the write_param signal.
Specifies that the PLL should be reconfigured with the PLL settings specified in the current cache.
When asserted, the reconfig signal indicates that the PLL should be reconfigured with the values in the cache. The reconfig signal is sampled at the rising clock edge. If the reconfig signal is asserted, the cached settings are loaded in the PLL. Assert the reconfig signal for 1 clock cycle only to prevent reloading the PLL configuration. The busy signal is asserted on the rising clock edge following the assertion of the reconfig signal. While the PLL is being loaded, the busy signal remains asserted. After the busy signal is deasserted, the parameter values can be modified again.
During and after reconfiguration, the scan chain data cache remains unchanged. This allows you to easily create a new set of reconfiguration settings using only one parameter.
If write_param has not been asserted since the previous assertion of reconfig, the entire scan chain is shifted in to the PLL again.
When the reconfig signal is asserted, the busy signal is only asserted on the following rising edge of the clock. The busy signal is not asserted on the same clock cycle as the reconfig signal.
Input signal indicating that the PLL should be reset.
When asserted, the pll_areset_in signal indicates the PLL IP core should be reset. This port defaults to 0 if left unconnected. When using the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core in a design, you cannot reset the PLL in any other way. You must use this IP core port to manually reset the PLL.
Input port for the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core. This port is driven by the PLL's scandone output signal and determines when the PLL is reconfigured.
Input port driven by the scandataout signal from the ALTPLL IP core. Use this port to read the current configuration of the ALTPLL IP core. This input port holds the ALTPLL scan data output from the dynamically reconfigurable bits. The pll_scandataout port must be connected to the scandataout port of the PLL. The activity on this port can only be observed when the reconfig signal is asserted.
Data read from the cache when read_param is asserted.
This 9-bit output bus provides the parameter data to the user. When the read_param signal is asserted, the values on counter_type and counter_param determine the parameter value that is loaded from cache and driven on the data_out bus. When the IP core deasserts the busy signal, the appropriate bits of the bus (for example, or [3..0]) hold a valid value.
Indicates that the PLL is reading or writing a parameter to the cache, or is configuring the PLL.
While the busy signal is asserted, no parameters can be read or written, and no reconfiguration can be initiated. Changes to the IP core can be made only when the busy signal is not asserted. The signal goes high when the read_param, write_param, or reconfig input port is asserted, and remains high until the specified operation is complete. In the case of a reconfiguration operation, the busy signal remains high until the pll_areset signal is asserted and then deasserted.
Drives the areset port on the PLL to be reconfigured.
The pll_areset port must be connected to the areset port of the ALTPLL IP core for the reconfiguration to function correctly. This signal is active high. The pll_areset is asserted when pll_areset_in is asserted, or, after reconfiguration, at the next rising clock edge after the scandone signal goes high. If you use the ALTPLL_RECONFIG IP core, use the pll_areset output port to drive the PLL areset port.
Drives the configupdate port on the PLL to be reconfigured. When asserted, the pll_configupdate port loads selected data to PLL configuration latches. The signal is asserted after the final data bit is sent out.
Drives the scanclk port on the PLL to be reconfigured. For information about the maximum scanclk frequency for the various devices, refer to the respective device handbook.
This port acts as a clock enable for the scanclk port on the PLL to be reconfigured.
Reconfiguration begins on the first rising edge of pll_scanclk after pll_scanclkena assertion. On the first falling edge of pll_scanclk, after the deassertion of the pll_scanclkena signal, the IP core stops scanning data to the PLL.
Drives the scandata port on the PLL to be reconfigured.
This output port from the IP core holds the scan data input to the PLL for the dynamically reconfigurable bits. The pll_scandata port sends scandata to the PLL. Any activity on this port can only be observed when the reconfig signal is asserted.
|Counter Type||Counter Param||Binary||Decimal||Width (bits)|
|Regular counters (C0 - C4)||High count||000||0||8|
|Mode (odd/even division)||101||5||1|
|CP/LF||Charge pump unused||101||5||5|
|Charge pump current||000||0||3|
|Loop filter unused||100||4||1|
|Loop filter resistor||001||1||5|
|Loop filter capacitance||010||2||2|
|VCO||VCO post scale||000||0||1|
|M/N counters||High count||000||0||8|
|Mode (odd/even division)||101||5||1|
For even nominal count, the counter bits are automatically set as follows:
- high_count = Nominalcount/2
- low_count= Nominalcount/2
For odd nominal count, the counter bits are automatically set as follows:
- high_count = (Nominalcount + 1)/2
- low_count = Nominalcount - high_count
- odd/even division bit = 1
For nominal count = 1, bypass bit = 1.
||Specify the clock frequency for simulation.|
|Input control signal to turn on or turn off the internal oscillator.|
|Output clock from the internal oscillator.|
|IP Core Version||User Guide|
|16.0||Intel® MAX® 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide|
|15.1||Intel® MAX® 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide|
|15.0||Intel® MAX® 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide|
|14.1||Intel® MAX® 10 Clocking and PLL User Guide|
|February 2017||2017.02.21||Rebranded as Intel.|
|June 2015||2015.06.12||Added connectivity restriction guideline to the PLL design considerations.|
|May 2015||2015.05.04||Rearranged the fine resolution phase shift equation.|
|September 2014||2014.09.22||Initial release.|